Carpentry

An Overview

 Today, in modern era may be people letting go the use of wooden articles due to replacement of fibre and steal materials. But from the day of human evolution to the end of 20th century, human life was widely surrounded by wooden articles. Starting from construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges to home furniture and utensils were made by wood then. So today, let’s discuss more about the maker, who is called carpenter and the skill which is called carpentry. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We will discuss the whole part, starting from the history to modern day cutting, shaping and installation of the craft. Traditionally carpenters worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but it has been evolved a lot, many types of ornamental and sculptural works can be seen on wooden articles. 

 

History

 Due to the flexibility to shape to anything, wood was the oldest building and craft material to human. The more complex shapes are improved with the technological improvement from the stone age to the Bronze age to the iron age. Some of the oldest archaeological evidence of carpentry are water well casings. These include an oak and hazel structure dating from 5256 BC, found in Ostrov, Czech Republic, and one built using split oak timbers with mortise and tenon and notched corners excavated in eastern Germany, dating from about 7,000 years ago in the early Neolithic period. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A little amount of information is available about carpentry from per-history, but from research of scholars, from folk stories and folktales it has been found that carpentry is as old as stone age but no written evidence is available to satisfy the argument. Some of the oldest surviving wooden buildings in the world are temples in China such as the Nanchan Temple built in 782, the Greensted Church, parts of which are from the 11th century, and the stave churches in Norway from the 12th and 13th centuries.

 

Techniques and Working

 Carpentry is a type of craft which require a lot of training, which involves both acquiring knowledge and a lot of physical practice. In the life time of a carpenter the phases are like; in the first phase carpenter is an apprentice, then he turns to a journeyman and after lots of experience and competency can eventually attain the name of a master carpenter. Today Institutions are providing pre-apprenticeship training through vocational course programs, in the form of workshop classes and community colleges.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

But often the carpenter you will find they have worked along side of carpenters and learned by working along side as a peripheral assistance. Carpenter may work for an employer or as a freelancer, but for free lancing they need a good amount of experience and expertise required. 

 

Carpenter Life

 Carpenter in early ages used to make chairs, tables, wooden beds, and almirah for the home use and ploughs and carts for the farmers. But now every home product, it may be a bed, chair, table or a sofa they are full with craft works of flower, animal and birds. It is time consuming and they are using high level wood craving techniques now a days. If you want to know more about wood craving, you can check this article.

A carpenter carries a lot of tools. He uses saws for cutting the wood into pieces, sharp chisels and axes to cut it, a plane to make it smooth, a lathe or turning-table to make it round, and hammers and nails to fasten pieces of wood together.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The work of a carpenter is skilled labour. It takes a long time to learn to do the work properly. A carpenter has to use his tools he has to have a good eye for correct measurement and he has to think about his work. Before he can make even a chair, he must have the plan of the chair in his mind, and the skill to make it according to his plan. 

In sort, a carpenter is very useful and important worker in the society and carpentry is a great form of craft. Wooden furniture is far more comfortable that the steal and plastic furniture today. But the situation of global warming is far more important than our comfort. The substitution of steal and plastic furniture to wooden furniture is a requisite demand for the collective good. 

 

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Description : India is the second-largest producer of jute after Bangladesh and the largest manufacturer of jute products including the bags all over the world. Moreover, a continuous research and development work have been carried out by the national authority in the field of jute agriculture, product designs and machinery development. The demand of fashionable shopping jute bags go on increasing day after day thus venturing in thejute bag making businessis a great opportunity to build an individual career to earn a good livelihood. But along with many advantages, every business has its own limitations, so before commencing for the same you need to do a thorough analysis of the positive and negative sides of the business. So let’s find out the pros and cons of this business idea. Each of the DIY projects we’re featuring today uses twine to create rustic farmhouse style crafts and decor. To get step-by-step instructions for any of these jute craft ideas, please click through the links to go to the original source. If you want to save any of the twine craft projects for later, please also pin or share from that website. The bloggers who created these burlap twine crafts spent a lot of time making them and deserve all the credit! White jute (Corchorus capsularis) Historical documents (including Ain-e-Akbari by Abul Fazal in 1590) state that the poor villagers of India used to wear clothes made of jute. Simple handlooms and hand spinning wheels were used by the weavers, who used to spin cotton yarns as well. History also suggests that Indians, especially Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses. It is highly functional in carrying grains or other agricultural products. Top ten jute producers, by metric ton, as of 2014 Country Production (Tonnes) India 1,968,000 Bangladesh 1,349,000 People's Republic of China 29,628 Uzbekistan 20,000 Nepal 14,890 South Sudan 3,300 Zimbabwe 2,519 Egypt 2,508 Brazil 1,172 Vietnam 970 World 3,393,248
3.6
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Description : An Overview If you will follow European church making pattern then you will see, there window glasses and skylight glasses are full with patterns and colours. Those are called as stained glass. The Stained-glass term refers to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Many foil glassworks and lamp glasses are found to be made with this. Small piece of colour glasses is joined to make a pattern or a sculpture and the material of stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. By joining small pieces patterns or pictures formed, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln. Patterned or stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained-glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason, stained glass windows have been described as "illuminated wall decorations". The design of a window may be abstract or figurative; may incorporate narratives drawn from the Bible, history, or literature; may represent saints or patrons, or use symbolic motifs, in particular armorial. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church – episodes from the life of Christ; within a parliament building – shields of the constituencies; within a college hall – figures representing the arts and sciences; or within a home – flora, fauna, or landscape. Types & colours of Glasses On the development of technology, during late medieval period glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential material for glass manufacture. Silica requires a very high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve. Such materials as potash, soda, and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable. Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, and gold produces wine red and violet glass. Much modern red glass is produced using copper, which is less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass. Some often-used types are cylinder glass or muff, crown glass, rolled glass, flashed glass and colours used are transparent, green glass, blue glass, red glass, yellow glass, purple glass and white glass. Techniques and Designs Design The subject matter of the window is determined to suit the location, a particular theme, or the wishes of the patron. A small design called a Vidimus is prepared which can be shown to the patron. A scaled model maquette may also be provided. The designer must take into account the design, the structure of the window, the nature and size of the glass available and his or her own preferred technique. A traditional narrative window has panels which relate a story. A figurative window could have rows of saints or dignitaries. Scriptural texts or mottoes are sometimes included and perhaps the names of the patrons or the person to whose memory the window is dedicated. In a window of a traditional type, it is usually left to the discretion of the designer to fill the surrounding areas with borders, floral motifs and canopies. A full-sized cartoon is drawn for every "light" (opening) of the window. A small church window might typically have two lights, with some simple tracery lights above. A large window might have four or five lights. The east or west window of a large cathedral might have seven lights in three tiers, with elaborate tracery. In medieval times the cartoon was drawn directly on the surface of a whitewashed table, which was then used as a pattern for cutting, painting and assembling the window. The cartoon is then divided into a patchwork, providing a template for each small glass piece. The exact position of the lead which holds the glass in place is also noted, as it is part of the calculated visual effect. Art & Pattern on Glass Each piece of glass is selected for the desired colour and cut to match a section of the template. An exact fit is ensured by "grozing" the edges with a tool which can nibble off small pieces. Details of faces, hair and hands can be painted onto the inner surface of the glass using a special glass paint which contains finely ground lead or copper filings, ground glass, gum arabic and a medium such as wine, vinegar or (traditionally) urine. The art of painting details became increasingly elaborate and reached its height in the early 20th century. From 1300 onwards, artists started using "silver stain" which was made with silver nitrate. It gave a yellow effect ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. It was usually painted onto the outside of a piece of glass, then fired to make it permanent. This yellow was particularly useful for enhancing borders, canopies and haloes, and turning blue glass into green glass. By about 1450, a stain known as "Cousin's rose" was used to enhance flesh tones. In the 16th century, a range of glass stains were introduced, most of them coloured by ground glass particles. They were a form of enamel. Painting on glass with these stains was initially used for small heraldic designs and other details. By the 17th century a style of stained glass had evolved that was no longer dependent upon the skilful cutting of coloured glass into sections. Scenes were painted onto glass panels of square format, like tiles. The colours were then annealed to the glass before the pieces were assembled. A method used for embellishment and gilding is the decoration of one side of each of two pieces of thin glass, which are then placed back to back within the lead came. This allows for the use of techniques such as Angel gilding and Eglomise to produce an effect visible from both sides but not exposing the decorated surface to the atmosphere or mechanical damage. Today it can be found to used by people of upper class and represents a value of royalty. Modern use also derived many new feature and usability as home showcase article and exotic sculpture making, small statues and tableware also.
4.1
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Description : An Overview Phulkari is a cloth craft which synonymous with Punjab and its rich heritage. A cloth full with floral work by different colored threads, embroidered and filled with flowers is called phulkari craft. It plays a special role in Punjabi lifestyle, especially during their occasions like marriage ceremonies, birthdays and other joyous festivals. Punjabi women created innumerable alluring and interesting designs and patterns by their skillful manipulation of the darn stitch. Simple and sparsely embroidered long scarfs(Duppatas), oversized long scarf (odhinis), and shawls, made for everyday use, were referred as Phulkaris, whereas clothing items that covered the entire body, made for special and ceremonial occasions like weddings and birth of a son were called Baghs (large garden). In Phulkari embroidery ornaments the cloth, whereas in Bagh, it entirely covers the garment so that the base cloth is not visible. When a girl child was born in typical Punjabi family, her mother and grandmother, start stitching bhags and phulkaris, which were to be given at the time of marriage. Depending on the status the family would give dowry of 11 to 101 bhags and phulkaris. They were embroidered by the women for their own use and use of other family members and were not for sale in the market. Thus, it was a purely domestic and folk art which brings color there day-to-day life. But now in modern era you can find them at cloth store and online stores as well. Types of Phulkari Craft Bagh Bagh is the style where the complete cloth is covered with embroidery work and with number of draning stitches of different shapes like horizontal, vertical and diagonal stitches. Many times, it has been seen that embroiderer make designs of what he sees around like utensils, rolling pin, vegetables and sometimes it has been seen that embroiderer making animal and bird designs too. Chope and Subhar Chope and Subhar style of embroidery work has been worn by brides. The chope is embroidered both sides on red with yellow. Shapes like triangle, small square has been made and edges are embroidered with fine arts. The Subhar has a central motif and four motifs on the corners. Darshan Dwar Darshan Dwar was a type of embroidery from phulkari which was made as a gift material, offering or bhet. Its design contains mainly geometric shapes and patterns, pillars and candid shot of human like structural embroideries. Sainchi Sainchi style is the only style of phulkari where the figures are first drawn using black ink. Then it was filled with embroidering with darn stitches. As first a rough drawing was made, it becomes easy to make even a difficult figure. Due to this you can see many complex designs were being made by Sainchi style of embroidering, for example: many scenes of everyday village life as women cooking, man ploughing, smoking hookah, women grinding wheat flour on chakki, officers coming to village carrying umbrella etc. Other types of phulkari seen in different regions of Punjab are Phulkari of South and Southwestern Punjab region, Neelak, Til patra, Ghunghat Bagh, Chhamaas etc. Revival of Phulkari Craft Traditional phulkari embroidery form became more or less on the path of extinct. The old phulkari artists were capable of making craft directly without tracing blocks, but the new artists don’t have those skills and they can’t work without tracing blocks. Phulkari was awarded the geographical indication status of india but that level of authenticity is vanished now. Over the years, the Indian and Punjab governments have been working towards promotion of Phulkari embroidery, by organizing special training programs, fairs, and exhibitions. Since most of the phulkari artist are selling their products by middle man, so they are not getting paid the actual labour cost and it’s no way near to selling price. But now a days phulkari artists are getting more profit due to e-commerce platform. As there is no middle man policies and embroiderer or artist can register and sell directly through them. Especially platforms like Spenowr, who are focused only on the niche of art and craft are giving the more visibility which is leading them to more profit and better tomorrow.
4.3
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Description : An Overview As we know India is a rich land of culture, traditions. Unity in diversity is the uniqueness of India. As many tribes live in many part of india and they have their own culture, tradition and trends. These tribes influenced on the jewellery trends widely and they have a lot of impact on fashion arena through their Jewellery (Tribal Jewellery). Now a days tribal jewelleries are not limited to tribal artists only. Lots of big fashion jewellery making companies are making them, as these products are demand of the day on fashion floor and have been widely considered by fashion model as well as people in their day to day life too. But after lots of transformation also then authenticity of tribal jewellery is kept intact. Making process of Tribal Jewellery Jewelleries of different kind need different type of raw material and tools to make them flawless. But the tools and raw material used in tribal jewellery is a bit different from other jewelleries. Brass sheet, marker, cutter, chisel, hammer, metal ruler, half round file, nitric acid, wire brush, divider, brass wire, anvil, soap nut are some generally used tool for tribal jewellery. Other commonly used materials include glass, such as fused-glass or enamel, wood, often carved or turned, shells and other natural animal substances such as bone and ivory, natural clay, polymer clay, Hemp and other twines have been used as well to create jewellery that has more of a natural feel. Beads are frequently used in jewellery. These may be made of glass, gemstones, metal, wood, shells, clay and polymer clay. Beaded jewellery commonly encompasses necklaces, bracelets, earrings, belts and rings. Beads may be large or small; the smallest type of beads used are known as seed beads, these are the beads used for the "woven" style of beaded jewellery. Seed beads are also used in an embroidery technique where they are sewn onto fabric backings to create broad collar neck pieces and beaded bracelets. Bead embroidery, a popular type of handwork during the Victorian era, is enjoying a renaissance in modern jewellery making. Beading, or beadwork, is also very popular in many African and indigenous North American cultures. Tribal jewellery can be altered to suit anyone’s taste because it’s all based upon the colours and materials used to create the pieces. Now a days quick customization are being made, according to customer need, so that will suit their taste. It may be adding a vintage bead or a colorful band even. Significance of Tribal Jewellery We consider tribal jewellery as a fashion element but for tribe people that means other values like: about the wearer’s status in the group, his wealth and possessions, spiritual beliefs and even functional habits. We can see even on Mahabharat and Ramayana also, they have elaborated descriptions of ornaments and the mystical powers they possess. Even we can find in history that many kings and royal people of ancient India hired ingenious craftsmen to craft exquisite piece of jewellery. We can even get to see the evidence of tribal jewellery in early Indus valley civilization like Mohenjo-Daro. Tribal jewelry integrates humble natural materials like leaves, berries, feathers, leather, claws, flowers, and much more into majestic pieces of art that are wearable. Demographics of the region, availability of resources and proposed functionality are some of the factors that make tribal jewelry of one group differ from the other. Besides, even extreme poverty and lack of precious metals have not deterred the tribal crafters from creating glorious ornaments. In fact, it has been observed that tribes of certain region may be scantily clothed, but they still adorn ample amount of jewelry on their bodies. Tribal Jewellery styles in different states of India Tribes of Bastar, Madhya Pradesh prefer to adorn traditional ornaments made out of copper, glass, silver, wood, peacock feathers and even wild flowers. Silver ware of Banjara tribes, Rajasthan is quite popular in all over the world. Tribes from Arunachal Pradesh use naturally available resources like seeds, beetles, feathers, bamboo and cane to decorate their jewels. Kaan (traditional earrings), chik (gold choker), Bengali Sinthi (worn on forehead) and Dokra are some famous crafts of West Bengal craft makers. Halba tribes from Maharastra use gold silver and brass to make beautiful earrings and nose pieces. Since Fashion industires are more onto tribal craft but the authenticity of tribal craft by an tribal artist is still untouched.

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Description : An Overview If you will follow European church making pattern then you will see, there window glasses and skylight glasses are full with patterns and colours. Those are called as stained glass. The Stained-glass term refers to coloured glass as a material or to works created from it. Throughout its thousand-year history, the term has been applied almost exclusively to the windows of churches and other significant religious buildings. Although traditionally made in flat panels and used as windows, the creations of modern stained glass artists also include three-dimensional structures and sculpture. Many foil glassworks and lamp glasses are found to be made with this. Small piece of colour glasses is joined to make a pattern or a sculpture and the material of stained glass is glass that has been coloured by adding metallic salts during its manufacture. By joining small pieces patterns or pictures formed, held together (traditionally) by strips of lead and supported by a rigid frame. Painted details and yellow stain are often used to enhance the design. The term stained glass is also applied to windows in which the colours have been painted onto the glass and then fused to the glass in a kiln. Patterned or stained glass, as an art and a craft, requires the artistic skill to conceive an appropriate and workable design, and the engineering skills to assemble the piece. A window must fit snugly into the space for which it is made, must resist wind and rain, and also, especially in the larger windows, must support its own weight. Many large windows have withstood the test of time and remained substantially intact since the Late Middle Ages. In Western Europe they constitute the major form of pictorial art to have survived. In this context, the purpose of a stained-glass window is not to allow those within a building to see the world outside or even primarily to admit light but rather to control it. For this reason, stained glass windows have been described as "illuminated wall decorations". The design of a window may be abstract or figurative; may incorporate narratives drawn from the Bible, history, or literature; may represent saints or patrons, or use symbolic motifs, in particular armorial. Windows within a building may be thematic, for example: within a church – episodes from the life of Christ; within a parliament building – shields of the constituencies; within a college hall – figures representing the arts and sciences; or within a home – flora, fauna, or landscape. Types & colours of Glasses On the development of technology, during late medieval period glass factories were set up where there was a ready supply of silica, the essential material for glass manufacture. Silica requires a very high temperature to melt, something not all glass factories were able to achieve. Such materials as potash, soda, and lead can be added to lower the melting temperature. Other substances, such as lime, are added to rebuild the weakened network and make the glass more stable. Glass is coloured by adding metallic oxide powders or finely divided metals while it is in a molten state. Copper oxides produce green or bluish green, cobalt makes deep blue, and gold produces wine red and violet glass. Much modern red glass is produced using copper, which is less expensive than gold and gives a brighter, more vermilion shade of red. Glass coloured while in the clay pot in the furnace is known as pot metal glass, as opposed to flashed glass. Some often-used types are cylinder glass or muff, crown glass, rolled glass, flashed glass and colours used are transparent, green glass, blue glass, red glass, yellow glass, purple glass and white glass. Techniques and Designs Design The subject matter of the window is determined to suit the location, a particular theme, or the wishes of the patron. A small design called a Vidimus is prepared which can be shown to the patron. A scaled model maquette may also be provided. The designer must take into account the design, the structure of the window, the nature and size of the glass available and his or her own preferred technique. A traditional narrative window has panels which relate a story. A figurative window could have rows of saints or dignitaries. Scriptural texts or mottoes are sometimes included and perhaps the names of the patrons or the person to whose memory the window is dedicated. In a window of a traditional type, it is usually left to the discretion of the designer to fill the surrounding areas with borders, floral motifs and canopies. A full-sized cartoon is drawn for every "light" (opening) of the window. A small church window might typically have two lights, with some simple tracery lights above. A large window might have four or five lights. The east or west window of a large cathedral might have seven lights in three tiers, with elaborate tracery. In medieval times the cartoon was drawn directly on the surface of a whitewashed table, which was then used as a pattern for cutting, painting and assembling the window. The cartoon is then divided into a patchwork, providing a template for each small glass piece. The exact position of the lead which holds the glass in place is also noted, as it is part of the calculated visual effect. Art & Pattern on Glass Each piece of glass is selected for the desired colour and cut to match a section of the template. An exact fit is ensured by "grozing" the edges with a tool which can nibble off small pieces. Details of faces, hair and hands can be painted onto the inner surface of the glass using a special glass paint which contains finely ground lead or copper filings, ground glass, gum arabic and a medium such as wine, vinegar or (traditionally) urine. The art of painting details became increasingly elaborate and reached its height in the early 20th century. From 1300 onwards, artists started using "silver stain" which was made with silver nitrate. It gave a yellow effect ranging from pale lemon to deep orange. It was usually painted onto the outside of a piece of glass, then fired to make it permanent. This yellow was particularly useful for enhancing borders, canopies and haloes, and turning blue glass into green glass. By about 1450, a stain known as "Cousin's rose" was used to enhance flesh tones. In the 16th century, a range of glass stains were introduced, most of them coloured by ground glass particles. They were a form of enamel. Painting on glass with these stains was initially used for small heraldic designs and other details. By the 17th century a style of stained glass had evolved that was no longer dependent upon the skilful cutting of coloured glass into sections. Scenes were painted onto glass panels of square format, like tiles. The colours were then annealed to the glass before the pieces were assembled. A method used for embellishment and gilding is the decoration of one side of each of two pieces of thin glass, which are then placed back to back within the lead came. This allows for the use of techniques such as Angel gilding and Eglomise to produce an effect visible from both sides but not exposing the decorated surface to the atmosphere or mechanical damage. Today it can be found to used by people of upper class and represents a value of royalty. Modern use also derived many new feature and usability as home showcase article and exotic sculpture making, small statues and tableware also.
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Description : An Overview Today, in modern era may be people letting go the use of wooden articles due to replacement of fibre and steal materials. But from the day of human evolution to the end of 20th century, human life was widely surrounded by wooden articles. Starting from construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges to home furniture and utensils were made by wood then. So today, let’s discuss more about the maker, who is called carpenter and the skill which is called carpentry. We will discuss the whole part, starting from the history to modern day cutting, shaping and installation of the craft. Traditionally carpenters worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but it has been evolved a lot, many types of ornamental and sculptural works can be seen on wooden articles. History Due to the flexibility to shape to anything, wood was the oldest building and craft material to human. The more complex shapes are improved with the technological improvement from the stone age to the Bronze age to the iron age. Some of the oldest archaeological evidence of carpentry are water well casings. These include an oak and hazel structure dating from 5256 BC, found in Ostrov, Czech Republic, and one built using split oak timbers with mortise and tenon and notched corners excavated in eastern Germany, dating from about 7,000 years ago in the early Neolithic period. A little amount of information is available about carpentry from per-history, but from research of scholars, from folk stories and folktales it has been found that carpentry is as old as stone age but no written evidence is available to satisfy the argument. Some of the oldest surviving wooden buildings in the world are temples in China such as the Nanchan Temple built in 782, the Greensted Church, parts of which are from the 11th century, and the stave churches in Norway from the 12th and 13th centuries. Techniques and Working Carpentry is a type of craft which require a lot of training, which involves both acquiring knowledge and a lot of physical practice. In the life time of a carpenter the phases are like; in the first phase carpenter is an apprentice, then he turns to a journeyman and after lots of experience and competency can eventually attain the name of a master carpenter. Today Institutions are providing pre-apprenticeship training through vocational course programs, in the form of workshop classes and community colleges. But often the carpenter you will find they have worked along side of carpenters and learned by working along side as a peripheral assistance. Carpenter may work for an employer or as a freelancer, but for free lancing they need a good amount of experience and expertise required. Carpenter Life Carpenter in early ages used to make chairs, tables, wooden beds, and almirah for the home use and ploughs and carts for the farmers. But now every home product, it may be a bed, chair, table or a sofa they are full with craft works of flower, animal and birds. It is time consuming and they are using high level wood craving techniques now a days. If you want to know more about wood craving, you can check this article. A carpenter carries a lot of tools. He uses saws for cutting the wood into pieces, sharp chisels and axes to cut it, a plane to make it smooth, a lathe or turning-table to make it round, and hammers and nails to fasten pieces of wood together. The work of a carpenter is skilled labour. It takes a long time to learn to do the work properly. A carpenter has to use his tools he has to have a good eye for correct measurement and he has to think about his work. Before he can make even a chair, he must have the plan of the chair in his mind, and the skill to make it according to his plan. In sort, a carpenter is very useful and important worker in the society and carpentry is a great form of craft. Wooden furniture is far more comfortable that the steal and plastic furniture today. But the situation of global warming is far more important than our comfort. The substitution of steal and plastic furniture to wooden furniture is a requisite demand for the collective good.
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Description : An Overview Apart from common carpentry, there are other forms of wooden works which are far more difficult than carpenter work. If a carpenter’s work takes 2-3 days, an elite wood carving may take 2-3 months. So, what is this work exactly, how it’s being done? Let’s get to know many things and everything about wood craving. If you don’t know about carpentry work which is basic form of wood craft, I suggest you to read that before reading this. Wood craving uses similar tools as carpentry, same cutting tools as knife, chisel and mallet. Craftsman use knife in one hand for some kind of works, sometimes a chisel by two hands or with one hand chisel and one hand on a mallet for making of a wooden figure or sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. As people were fascinated for wood carving from mid-19th century and those techniques were practised by many places through the world, but today survives only in few areas like other carving materials like stone, bronze and terracotta works. The main reason behind low demand of the craft is its vulnerability to decay, insect damage and fire. Interest for wood craft in mid-19th century was developed because of many points. Some of them are; wood is easy to carry that stone; wood is easy to carve and any kind of fine shape can be given to wood which is never possible in stone. Wood crafts are good for making mask and other caring objects, but the vulnerability of rapid damage, in the other hand took the craft to its saturation. Tools for Crafting The carving knife is the foremost important tool, without which the work can’t proceed a step. It helps to pare, cut and smooth wood. Then comes the gouge, which is used for inner areas of a sculpture. Making of inner hallows, rounds and curves. The coping saw is used to cut the chunks of wood. Chisels of many sizes are used; whose straight cutting edge is good for making lines and removing large unrequired pieces. V-tool and U-Gauge are used for making v-shaped and u-shaped cutting edges respectively. Mallet is used with the chisel to make the work more efficient. Other secondary tools are used such as sharpening equipment for sharpening the tool edges and screw and glue for fixing the work on the workbench. Complete Process WoodSelection This is the most important feature of carving, mostly experienced and old carver used to select the wood for carving. The grain side of the wood is the strongest side and it may be straight, interlocked or wavy. The most delicate parts of the sculpture are being carved by with this grain. Carving the blanks are also quite difficult and mostly they were assembled after carving separately. The wood selecting and mapping process is most important because if the most attractive area of the sculpture get damaged then the whole effort will go in vein. Basswood and tupelo; both are hardwoods that are relatively easy to work with. Chestnut, butternut, oak, American walnut, mahogany and teak are also very good woods; while for fine work Italian walnut, sycamore maple, apple, pear, box or plum, are usually chosen. The areas which are not too delicate and will be painted later, usually made with inexpensive material like pine and mango wood. Sculpture Most carver use drawing, small model before working on comparative bigger size sculpture or sometime digital designs are being made to have an idea, so that they can complete the bigger size model easily. Usually the work starts from cutting the big unrequired pieces. Then the work proceeds with knife, chisel and mallet. If a carver makes a large sculpture, then ideally, it’s being built be pieces and then assembled to give a final look. As before it’s being said, the type of wood is most vital. A bad wood can drop the efficiency to negative percentage where a good wood can hike up the efficiency to a level apart. Sometimes it has been seen that several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size and it’s done before processing. Any wood can be carved, but it’s been chosen according to the requirement, for example if a figure needs very fine and keen detailing, then wood with fine grain are used. Professional carver uses the term ‘Chisel’ for both gouge and chisel, but correctly a gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and chisel is a tool with flat edge. Smaller sculptures may require the woodcarver to use knife and larger pieces might require the use of chisel and mallet. But the common rule in wood carving is the carver must work across or with the grain, they should never do it against the grain. Till here we talked about a simple shape of carving and necessary tools for simple carving. But the carver may use a variety of tools for creating details. For example, a veiner or fluter can be used to make deep gouges on the surface. It all stands on the base of requirements. To give the sculpture a smooth texture, rifflers are used and the final polishing is done with abrasive paper. Firstly, large grain paper is used to remove the hard and thick roughness then fine-grained paper is used to give the sculpture slick to the touch. After these procedure finish, the artist may seal and colour the wood with a variety of natural oils, as walnut or linseed oil which protects the wood from dirt and moisture. Oil also makes the sculpture more shinny and the sculpture become so shinny that it may reflect light and you can see your reflection too. Sometimes expensive wax is used with fragile and costly carved products. But this is mostly used in products which stays indoor. Wood carving is a very time consuming and expensive form of sculpture making. But the outcome is mesmerizing and defines the passion of artist in every inch of the sculpture. If you find this article good, please rate us and leave a comment below.
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Description : An Overview I believe everyone is an artist, you wonder why! Well, you will know in sometime. I can bet there is not a single child who had never made a paper aeroplane or paper boat. Yes, only that much takes to be called an artist. To be an artist you need mind of a child, because a child has the most passionate, colorful and joyous mind. Executing from a paper boat to a complex yet beautiful structure is called Origami. Origami is formed of two words, ‘Ori’ and ‘gami’, ori means folding and gami means art of paper folding. The motto of this craft is to make a sculpture from a piece of flat square paper. Modern origami techniques generally discourage the use of cuts, glue or marking on the papers. Sometimes it has been seen that small folds with many papers are made then joined along with to give it an intricate design and complex origami. The techniques are used in packaging, engineering applications and projects also. History The techniques which are being used now a days from 20th century is widely changed from the techniques of 16th century, described by many historians. Starting from China’s culture of burning paper folded origami in funerals to Japan’s ceremonial gifting with greeting cards, those are widely described in many poems of historic poets of Japan and China. In Europe another form of origami folding was famous in 17-18th century, it was actually a origami made with napkin folding was mostly forgotten. Akira Yoshizawa was the person whom we can call the father of modern folding techniques, He stared creating and recording original origami works. He derived techniques like wet-folding and partly diagramming system. He inspired many craftsmen and from 1980s number of folders started systematically studying the mathematical properties of folded forms, which led to a rapid increase in the complexity of origami models. Types of Origami Origami not only limited to still-life, there are many origami objects are being build which uses kinetic energy of hands to move and those are called action origami. There are different types of origami such as modular origami, wet-folded origami, strip folded etc. Let’s discuss each of them briefly. Modular origami: The base of modular folding is making small pieces of simple folds and latter they join them with the help of glue, thread or cuts to give it an intrinsic and very complex design, which is tricky yet mesmerizing. Many of the modular origami models are decorative folding balls like kusudama, the technique differs though in that kusudama allows the pieces to be put together using thread or glue. A Chinese technique which follows large number of pieces are put together to make elaborate models. This is known as 3D origami, sometimes made with paper money is a form of modular folding. Some Chinese refugees who are detained in America derived this technique, so this technique is often called Golden Venture folding, formed from the name of the ship which the Chinese used to came on. Wet-folding: Wet-folding is an origami technique which makes the edges of the sculpture gentle curves rather than geometric straight folds and flat surfaces. The paper is dampened so it can be moulded easily, the final model keeps its shape when it dries. It can be used, for instance, to produce very natural looking animal models. The adhesive used are become hard when dry and dissolves in water when wet and becoming soft and flexible, is often applied to the paper either at the pulp stage while the paper is being formed, or on the surface of a ready sheet of paper. Pureland origami: Pureland origami have the restrictions that only simple mountain/valley folds may be used. This technique is developed by John Smith in the 1970s to help inexperienced folders or those with kindergarten level skills. Some designers also like the challenge of creating within the very strict constraints. Kirigami: Kirigami is a technique which is by Japan and the term Kirigami is a Japanese term which means paper cutting. But the modernization of origami made the cutting techniques irrelevant after 1960-1970s. Even the cutting techniques were described in books but modern craftsmen no longer consider models with cuts to be origami. Most modern books of origami don’t even mention the cutting techniques. Strip folding: Strip folding is a combination of paper folding and paper weaving. A common example of strip folding is called the Lucky Star, also called Chinese lucky star, dream star, wishing star, or simply origami star. Another common fold is the Moravian Star which is made by strip folding in 3-dimensional design to include 16 spikes. Techniques and Materials Techniques: Many origami books, online courses are available by which anyone can learn how to make an origami. They describe the techniques from scratch to pro level. Video tutorials are often helpful now a day, you can find some in Spenowr also. From the basic folds from mountain, valley, pleats, reverse folds to difficult and complex level of folding like flapping bird, fish, fish base, waterbomb base you can learn over there. Materials: Almost any flat material can be used for folding, only requirement is that it should hold a crease. There are variety of paper available with different sizes ranging from 2.5 cm to 25 cm, variety of color as dual coloured, one sided coloured, patterned. These papers weights slightly less than copy paper which makes it good for making complex structures. Foil-backed paper, as its name implies, is a sheet of thin foil glued to a sheet of thin paper. Related to this is tissue foil, which is made by gluing a thin piece of tissue paper to kitchen aluminium foil. A second piece of tissue can be glued onto the reverse side to produce a tissue/foil/tissue sandwich. Foil-backed paper is available commercially, but not tissue foil; it must be handmade. Both types of foil materials are suitable for complex models. Artisan papers such as unryu, gampi, kozo, saa, and abaca have long fibers and are often extremely strong. As these papers are floppy to start with, they are often backcoated or resized with methylcellulose or wheat paste before folding. Also, these papers are extremely thin and compressible, allowing for thin, narrowed limbs as in the case of insect models. Paper money from various countries is also popular to create origami with; this is known variously as Dollar Origami, Orikane, and Money Origami. Tools: Most of the fold are done using a flat surface and some folds are also made in air. People wonder that, no tools needed to form an origami, however some tools like bone folder, which allows sharp creases to be made in paper easily, paper clips can act as extra pairs of fingers and tweezers can be used for extremely small folds. Sometimes a ruler or ballpoint embosser to score the creases. Today kindergarten to play group and upper knowledge group children are being taught origami making for entertainment and creativity development porpose.

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Description : An Overview Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the striking clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower. The official name of the tower in which Big Ben is located was originally the Clock Tower, but it was renamed Elizabeth Tower in 2012 to mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II. The tower was designed by Augustus Pugin in a neo-Gothic style. When completed in 1859, its clock was the largest and most accurate four-faced striking and chiming clock in the world. The tower stands 315 feet (96 m) tall, and the climb from ground level to the belfry is 334 steps. Its base is square, measuring 39 feet (12 m) on each side. Dials of the clock are 23 feet (7.0 m) in diameter. On 31 May 2009, celebrations were held to mark the tower's 150th anniversary. Big Ben is the largest of the tower's five bells and weighs 13.5 long tons (13.7 tonnes; 15.1 short tons). It was the largest bell in the United Kingdom for 23 years. The origin of the bell's nickname is open to question; it may be named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw its installation, or heavyweight boxing champion Benjamin Caunt. Four quarter bells chime at 15, 30 and 45 minutes past the hour and just before Big Ben tolls on the hour. The clock uses its original Victorian mechanism, but an electric motor can be used as a backup. Design The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival style, and is 315 feet (96.0 m) high. The bottom 200 feet (61.0 m) of the tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand-coloured Anston limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 50 feet (15.2 m) square raft, made of 10 feet (3.0 m) thick concrete, at a depth of 13 feet (4.0 m) below ground level. The four clock dials are 180 feet (54.9 m) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 164,200 cubic feet (4,650 cubic metres). Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents were able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament before the current repair works. However, the tower currently has no lift, though one is being installed, so those escorted had to climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top. Big Ben Renovations in the 1930s Due to changes in ground conditions since construction, the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 230 millimetres (9.1 in) over 55 m height, giving an inclination of approximately 1⁄240. This includes a planned maximum of 22 mm increased tilt due to tunnelling for the Jubilee line extension. It leans by about 500 millimetres (20 in) at the finial. Experts believe the tower's lean will not be a problem for another 4,000 to 10,000 years. Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west. Bells Great Bell The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell but better known as Big Ben, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster. It sounds an E-natural. The original bell was a 16 ton hour bell, cast on 6 August 1856 in Stockton-on-Tees by John Warner & Sons. It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria, but that an MP suggested the bell's current nickname of "Big Ben" during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard. Chimes Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which play the Westminster Quarters on the quarter hours. The four quarter bells sound G?, F?, E, and B. They were cast by John Warner & Sons at their Crescent Foundry in 1857 (G?, F? and B) and 1858 (E). The Foundry was in Jewin Crescent, in what is now known as The Barbican, in the City of London. The bells are sounded by hammers pulled by cables coming from the link room—a low-ceiling space between the clock room and the belfry—where mechanisms translate the movement of the quarter train into the sounding of the individual bells. Cultural Significant The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio media, but as the Westminster Quarters are heard from other clocks and other devices, the sound is by no means unique. Big Ben is a focal point of New Year celebrations in the United Kingdom, with radio and television stations airing its chimes to welcome the start of the New Year. To welcome in 2012, the clock tower was lit with fireworks that exploded at every toll of Big Ben. Similarly, on Remembrance Day, the chimes of Big Ben are broadcast to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month and the start of the two minutes' silence. The chimes of Big Ben have also been used at the state funerals of monarchs on three occasions: firstly, at the funeral of King Edward VII in 1910, when Big Ben chimed 68 times, one stroke for each year of the monarch's life; secondly, at the funeral of King George V in 1936 (70 strokes); and finally, at the funeral of King George VI in 1952 (56 strokes). Londoners who live an appropriate distance from the tower and Big Ben can, by means of listening to the chimes both live and on analogue radio, hear the bell strike thirteen times. This is possible because the electronically transmitted chimes arrive virtually instantaneously, while the "live" sound is delayed travelling through the air since the speed of sound is relatively slow. Maintainance Work at Big Ben
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Description : An Overview The Indian Museum in Kolkata, West Bengal, India, also referred to as the Imperial Museum at Calcutta in colonial era texts, is the ninth oldest museum of the world and the second largest museum in India, after the Madras Museum, and has rare collections of antiques, armour and ornaments, fossils, skeletons, mummies and Mughal paintings. It was founded by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in Kolkata (Calcutta), India, in 1814. The founder curator was Nathaniel Wallich, a Danish botanist. It has six sections comprising thirty five galleries of cultural and scientific artifacts namely Indian art, archaeology, anthropology, geology, zoology and economic botany. Many rare and unique specimens, both Indian and trans-Indian, relating to humanities and natural sciences, are preserved and displayed in the galleries of these sections. the administrative control of the Cultural sections, viz. Art, Archaeology and Anthropology rests with the Board of Trustees under its Directorate, and that of the three other science sections is with the geological survey of India, the zoological survey of India and the Botanical survey of India. The museum Directorate has eight co-ordinating service units: Education, Preservation, publication, presentation, photography, medical, modelling and library. This multipurpose Institution with multidisciplinary activities is being included as an Institute of national importance in the seventh schedule of the Constitution of India. It is the oldest museum in India. In particular the art and archaeology sections hold collections of international importance. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The present Director of the Indian Museum is Shri Arijit Dutta Choudhury who is also the Director General, NCSM and having the additional charge of Director General of National Library. History The Indian Museum originated from the Asiatic Society of Bengal which was created by Sir William Jones in 1784. The concept of having a museum arose in 1796 from members of the Asiatic Society as a place where man-made and natural objects collected could be kept, cared for and displayed. The objective began to look achievable in 1808 when the Society was offered suitable accommodation by the Government of India in the Chowringhee-Park Street area. This building had been designated as the site the for not just the Asiatic Societies, Oriental Museum's collection and the Economic Geology collection of the Geological Survey of India but also to hold the offices of both. The Zoological and Anthropological sections of the museum gave rise to the Zoological Survey of India in 1916, which in turn gave rise to the Anthropological Survey of India in 1945. The Scottish anatomist and zoologist John Anderson took up the position of curator in 1865, and catalogued the mammal and archaeology collections. The English zoologist James Wood-Mason worked at the museum from 1869 and succeeded Anderson as curator in 1887. Collections Egyptian It currently occupies a resplendent mansion, and exhibits among others: an Egyptian mummy. The mummy is being restored. Egyptian Mummy Statue of Ancient Egyptian God Indian The large collection of ancient and medieval Indian artefacts include remains of the Buddhist stupa from Bharhut, the Buddha's ashes, a copy of the Lion Capital of Ashoka from an whose four-lion symbol became the official emblem of the Republic of India, fossil skeletons of prehistoric animals, an art collection, rare antiques, and a collection of meteorites.The Indian Museum is also regarded as "the beginning of a significant epoch initiating the socio-cultural and scientific achievements of the country. It is otherwise considered as the beginning of the modernity and the end of medieval era" by UZER Places. Stone Imprint of Buddha's Foot Copy of the Lion Capital of Ashoka The Mathura Herakles Natural History The museum has four galleries dedicated to natural history, namely the botanical, insect, mammal and bird galleries. It also contains prehistoric artifacts such as the huge skeleton of a dinosaur. Elephant skeleton Showcases with different types of fossils Skull of Indus Valley inhabitants An Abnormal Young Goat With Eight Legs
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Description : Which Corporate Animal Are You Really? Well as the title might look to be more of an advisory article, let me guarantee....it isn’t!! With my little corporate experience and close proximity with people with different attributes, I realize all of us do represent a type of animal, in the corporate world. As and when we step inside the “Khul ja sim sim” door, we all change to a different being...some stay human and others turn into a wholesome new being. Ohh just to clear, those considered humans are the freshers..the new entrees to the corporate zoo, who gradually, necessarily not by wish but by force, will change to “Corporate animals” either voluntarily or by force. Let’s see the behavioral traits that the corporate employees share with animals in the zoo. Donkeys: Ahh these are the people in majority. Certainly the employees can be identified by very specific features like very hard working without any concern about the reason behind each act as well the destination to be reached. They definitely believe in being available to their masters 24*7 and putting all efforts to do the told “jobs” without even knowing the relevance of each act. Also, they are often seen loading themselves with unbearable loads, much more than their capacity and roles they are assigned to, without showing concern, just to be ahead of the other beings in same creed. Horses: These are the employees with traits equivalent to horses. They have nothing to do with anything in and around them. But once given a goal or destination, they run to achieve them. Focused yet ignorant of the facts detailing changes in and around them, even though at times they don’t realize the competition they have been trying to “win” has been dispersed. They are fast but one tracked, always on the urge to reach the destination whatsoever. Dogs: Though being dogs may sound negative but its not. Matching the traits, it points the most loyal employees of the company. Loyal to company, bosses & work. They exactly justify the tag “humans best friend”. They are the safe players, liked by the bosses and always used as an example. The lowest risk takers but smart workers, yeah they do exists…. But as the traits suggests they are definitely not best with colleagues and always on the hit list of the team. Since they are biased and diplomatic (always maintaining their loyalty to the seniors) they become the least accepted value adders in any project. Monkeys: They are the keen followers of their seniors or as I say dominants. They are good at mimicking the work methods, process, attitude and every possible thing that they think has contributed to the success of their bosses. They have the very basic trait of monkeys….to jump. They are very indecisive, frequently changing their roles, interests, work, skill and very specifically attitude. Their behavior changes in very situation even for same person. Very much unpredictable, yet very opportunistic. Blame game is their strength and being jumpy their have their ways to come out of a situation even if they are at fault (which can be negative for the submissive teammates working with them). Snakes: Ohh you have to be so careful from these people. As like snakes these are the most dangerous creature of all. Mostly making their way forward by killing every hurdle (people in corporate world) coming their way. They keep climbing the corporate hierarchy at snake speed. Nothing can stop them and of course they don’t stop for others. Very are never a leader but always a BOSS. Appreciation and money are their food and staying ahead is what make them keep going. They don’t hesitate destroying others coming in the way to stay ahead of everyone. Fearless and always daring to do everything that could lead to their success. Inspite of the above traits they are good learners. These all above may sound too much of pessimistic, Hello, isn’t it! But it’s not a fair world at all. People out there always looking for a chance to crush you under the cleat of their shoes. But where there is life there is millions of possibilities, so lemma introduce you to the animal, which is Very rarely found & one of its kind. The Jaguars! JAGUAR: These are the once who are icon of Focus, commitment & sheer will. They don’t care what people are taking behind, they are always young in their mind and promising at their work place rather than being challenging or competing others as they believe the competition is only inside to be a better version of themselves as they were yesterday. Whatever Position they might achieve, they never believe on taking advantages of their hierarchy at organization. As the jaguar is such an animal, who can over through any animal with it’s speed, so vigorous and have such an endurance to overcome any kind of unpleasant situation and having a agility to hunt their prey by deteriorating its stamina in a playful manner and not by killing directly. These rare beings are having the same DNA, same infection that, they don’t believe on fixing things, they believe on finding problems over & over and then Making a solution for it. But it’s not an everyday thing which you can witness, come across or deal with maybe you can find only one or two of this kind in your whole life, as they believe success is not an achievement, it’s a lifestyle. But at last I want to exaggerate a truth or a question that often come to my mind that as Jaguar on corporate explained “Is that the state of oxymoron what anyone can ever achieve or there is something above and beyond?” Well these are the most commonly found “corporate animals”. Look around and have fun categorizing people in your workspace (also self :P ). Also, let me know if you find traits matching some other species of animal kingdom….. ????
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Description : An Overview The Government Museum is the second oldest museum after Indian Museum, Kolkata and tenth old museum in world. This Museum have a wide collection of human history and culture located in the neighbourhood of Egmore in Chennai, India. Started in 1851. It is particularly rich in archaeological and numismatic collections. It has the largest collection of Roman antiquities outside Europe. Among them, the colossal Museum Theatre is one of the most impressive. The National Art Gallery is also present in the museum premises. Main Buliding Built in Indo-Saracenic style, it houses rare European and Asian painting of renowned artists, including that of Raja Ravi Varma. It is the third largest museum in the world, and with 0.6 million visitors in 2018. It has the richest collections of bronze idols, 500 of them dating to 1000 BC, in Asia. History In 1778, the governor of Madras granted 43 acres for an estate to a civil servant, who, subsequently in 1793, assigned the grounds to a committee of 24 which then regulated the public amusements in the city. In 1821, the committee sold the main house and central garden space to E. S. Moorat, an Armenian merchant who, in turn, sold it back to the government in 1830. The government first used the buildings and the grounds as the collector's "Cutcherry" and later for the "Central Museum." The museum was originally established in a building on College Road in Nungambakkam in the year 1851 and was shifted to the present site in 1854. Building Architecture The museum complex consisting of six buildings and 46 galleries covers an area of around 16.25 acres (66,000 m²) of land. The objects displayed in the museum cover a variety of artifacts and objects covering diverse fields including archeology, numismatics, zoology, natural history, sculptures, palm-leaf manuscripts and Amravati paintings. Located close to the main museum entrance gates on Pantheon Road, the museum theatre is a rare specimen of the Italianate style of architecture, inspired by Classical architecture and developed in 1802 at Britain by John Nash. However, the theatre was built by the British in the late 19th century when this style was no longer popular in England. The structure has a high plinth and is accessed through a tall flight of stairs. It is primarily a semicircular structure with a rectangular wing at the rear. The latter wing now houses some of the galleries of the museum. The main hall is accessed through a verandah with a row of columns linked by semicircular arches. The walls and columns are embellished with floral and geometric designs. The huge main hall was initially designed for staging theatrical performances. It has around 600 seats and a commodious stage and the actors' dressing rooms adjoin this stage. Collections Cannons at the museum complex Sculpture of Vishnu in bronze from the Chola period Sculpture of Bhadrakali in bronze from the 14th century CE Sculpture of Dakshinamurthi from the Chola period, 12th century CE Sculpture of Mahishasuramardini in bronze from the Chola period, 11 century CE Contemporary Paintings Folk Religion Dinosaur Skeleton


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